The evolution history of glasses(1/2)
When you move the glasses glasses shop, a riot of colours cater to the tastes and needs of men and women, old and young. In all kinds of spectacles, contact lenses are becoming more and more popular with modern people because of their unique shapes and functions. Some figures show that about 120 million people are wearing contact lenses around the world. From the original bulky and rough tangible glasses to the light and delicate contact lenses, there have been numerous technological innovations.
In the new Assyrian civilization period from 750 B.C. to 710 BC, there was a crystal made of glasses, which might have been used as a magnifying glass. According to the textual research, this is the earliest spectacles in the history of human beings. Since then, the glasses have opened a long process of evolution. In 1000, Arabia scholar Ibn Hesse wood proposed, part of a glass ball or crystal ball has amplification effect, thus the invention of the lens. In the same period, the "stone of reading" appeared in the West. It means to directly place the polished crystals or glass balls directly into the books to enlarge the reading content, but when fashion is not put the lens in front of us.
Before the introduction of optical glass lenses in the west, our country has long invented and manufactured glasses with natural crystal as raw materials, and has acquired certain optical knowledge and superb crystal lens grinding technology. In the end of the spring and Autumn period, the official book of the industrial technology in Qi, "the theory of examination," was used to record the fire of the lens. In 2300 before the spring and Autumn period, the thinkers of Mo-tse's "Mojing", recorded a lot about light and the pinhole imaging plane mirror, convex mirror and concave mirror is discussed, which is China's earliest glasses lens and relevant historical records.
In 1981, a golden ring embedded crystal magnifying glass was excavated in the tomb of King Liu Jing of Jiangsu in the Han Dynasty in China. It can amplify objects 4 to 5 times, indicating that China could make crystal stone convex lenses in the early Eastern Han Dynasty in the early 1981. Han Zhongshan Jing Wang Liu Sheng tomb unearthed a jade on the patch, this is the predecessor of the later sunglasses. Ancient Chinese invented glasses mostly crystal clear mirror, Citrine, quartz etc. sun glasses to protect eyes, and presbyopic glasses can enlarge, few can myopia corrected visual acuity. Because the raw materials that are making lenses for gold and silver, and other precious hawksbills natural crystal material, a pair of glasses price even more than a horse, called authentic luxury.
In 1268, Roger Bacon, a British scientist who was known as "strange doctor", wrote in his book: "when the convex side of the crystal is near the eyes, the letters will appear bigger and clearer." This is also the earliest record of correcting eyesight lenses. In the Italy literature, the spectacles first appeared in 1289. It is said that Armato, a photo expert in Italy Florence, was invented by a man living in pizza city named Spina. At that time, Europeans wore optical lenses made mainly of transparent quartz and precious stones. Spectacles were expensive, which could only be a rare thing that aristocratic rich people showed their wealth and status.
In the thirteenth Century, the West began to use glass lenses to correct their eyesight. In the late thirteenth Century, Alexander Spi, the monk of Italy, formally introduced his glasses to the public. By the beginning of the fourteenth Century, the rapid development of European capitalist handicraft industry has promoted the progress of glass manufacturing process. At the same time, the invention of printing led to the development of European printing industry and the spread of books. More and more people read their eyes under dim candlelight and imperceptibly damaged their eyesight. People's demand for glasses continued to grow. As a result, heavy and expensive quartz and gemstone lenses are gradually replaced by relatively cheap, light glass lenses. From 1317, Venice, the European glass manufacturing center, became an important glass manufacturing center in the world.
With the development of optical technology and glass manufacturing industry, lens quality is greatly improved, and for myopia and astigmatism, glaucoma patients with different needs, making suitable all kinds of glasses. In 1784, American inventor Benjamin Franklin made double focus lenses with two lenses to create double use glasses for far myopia. In 1825, British astronomer George Eli invented a cylindrical lens to correct astigmatism. In 1907, Ebs, the Italian man, first proposed the idea of progressive multi focus lenses, marking the birth of a new concept of visual correction for special lenses. The design of this special lens is inspired by the shape of the nose. The curvature of the front surface of the lens increases continuously from the top to the bottom until the required near refractive power is reached at the near area of the lens.
Glass lenses have excellent optical properties and are not easy to draw, but the higher the refractive index, the thinner the lenses, the fragile lenses, and the weight of the material. As a result, French scientists in 1937 invented a plastic lens called acrylic, not easy to break, but the definition is poor. In 1954, a French engineer Essilor inspired from the production of the aircraft cockpit materials, the invention of resin lens. Since then, the resin lenses have become the supremacy of the mirror Kingdom, which has been used to today.
It is a very difficult task to directly wear lenses on the eyeball. But from 500 years ago, people began to think and practice hard. Finally, we successfully created the magic props, which can make the vision clear.